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高中英语语法大全 高考英语必背的13个语法考点

2018-11-08 10:56:15 文/程爽 19次阅读

为了方便大家在更好地背诵英语语法知识,小编为大家整理了一些高考英语必背的英语语法知识,供参考!

高中英语语法大全 高考英语必背的13个语法考点

高中英语13个语法考点归纳总结

1. 考查never置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词never置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案分别为BA)

(1) Never in my wildest dreams _________ these people are living in such poor conditions. (安徽卷)

A. I could imagine B. could I imagine

C. I couldn’t imagine D. couldn’t I imagine

(2) Never before _________ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today. (上海卷)

A. has this city been B. this city has been

C. was this city D. this city was

2. 考查little置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词little置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案分别为DD)

(1) Little _________ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. (安徽卷)

A. he realized B. he didn’t realize

C. didn’t he realize D. did he realize

(2) They have a good knowledge of English but little _________ they know about German (天津卷)

A. have B. did C. had D. do

3. 考查seldom置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词seldom置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案分别为BA)

(1) Seldom _________ any apology when mistakes are made.

A. we receive B. do we receive

C. we received D. did we receive

(2) Seldom _________ an article that was so full of lies.

A. have I read B. I have read C. had I read D. I had read.

4. 考查hardly / scarcely置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词hardly, scarcely等置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同) 。如:(答案为A)

Hardly _________ Edinburgh than they were ordered to return to London.

A. had they reached B. they had reached

C. have the reached D. they have reached

5. 考查no sooner等置于句首时的倒装

当no sooner, no longer等结构置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同) 。如:(答案分别为AC)

(1) —Did Linda see the traffic accident?

—No, no sooner _________ than it happened. (天津卷)

A. had she gone B. she had gone

C. has she gone D. she has gone

(2) No sooner _________ mowing the lawn than it started raining.

A. have I started B. I have started

C. had I started D. I had started

6. 考查nowhere置于句首时的倒装

当否定副词nowhere置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为A)

Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else _________such a beautiful place. (辽宁卷)

A. can you find B. you could find

C. you can find D. could you find

7. 考查by no means等置于句首时的倒装

当表示否定意义的副词性短语by no mearns, on no accounts, in no case, at no time等置于 句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为D)

I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means _________ with my progress. (重庆卷)

A. the teacher is not satisfied B. is the teacher not satisfied

C. the teacher is satisfied D. is the teacher satisfied

8. 考查not only置于句首时的倒装

当not only…but also句式的not only部分置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一 般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为B)

_________ snacks and drinks but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the forest. (上海)

A. Not only they brought B. Not only did they bring

C. Not only brought they D. Not only they did bring

9. 考查not until置于句首时的倒装

当not…until句式转换成not until且置于句首时,其后的主句部分习惯上要用倒装语序( 与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为B)

Not until I began to work _________ how much time I had wasted.

A. didn't I realize B. did I realize

C. I didn't realize D. I realized

10. 考查“only+状语”置于句首时的倒装

当“only+状语”置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序(与一般疑问句形式相同)。 如:(答案为DA)

(1) Only then _________ how much damage had been caused. (陕西卷)

A. she realized B. she had realized

C. had she realized D. did she realize

(2) _________ by keeping down costs will Power Data hold its advantage over other companies. (浙江卷)

A. Only B. Just C. Still D. Yet

11. 考查“so+形容词”置于句首时的倒装

当so…that句式的“so+形容词”部分置于句首时,其后习惯上要用倒装语序( 与一般疑问句形式相同)。如:(答案为BB)

(1) _________ that Maric was able to set up new branches elsewhere. (陕西卷)

A. So successful her business was B. So successful was her business

C. So her business was successful D. So was her successful business

(2) So difficult _________ it to work out the problem that I decided to ask Tom for advice. (广东卷)

A. I did find B. did I find C. I have found D. have I found

12. 考查类似“so do I”结构的倒装

So do I这类结构表示的是前面提出的某一肯定的情况,后者也同样适用,通常可译为 “……也一样”“……也是如此”。如:(答案为CA)

(1) — My room gets very cold at night.

— _________. (江苏卷)

A. So is mine B. So mine is C. So does mine D. So mine does

(2) —It’s burning hot today, isn’t it?

—Yes. _________ yesterday. (福建卷)

A. So was it B. So it was C. So it is D. So is it

13. 考查类似“nor / neither do I”结构的倒装

nor [neither] do I这类结构表示的是前面提出的某一否定的情况,后者也同样适用,通常可译为“……也一样”“……也是如此”。如:(答案为B)

If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, _________. (全国II)

A. he will either B. neither will he

C. he neither will D. either he will

高中英语必背重点语法知识总结

专题一 :定 语 从 句

一、关系代词引导的定语从句

1、that 指人或物在从句中作主语,宾语或表语

which 指物在从句中作主语,宾语或表语(作宾语时可以省略)

who 指人在从句中作主语,宾语或表语

whom 指人在从句中作宾语

whose 指人或物在从句中作定语

as 指人或物在从句中作主语,宾语或表语

but 指人或物在从句中作主语,宾语或表语

注意:指物时,whose+名词=the+名词+of which或 of which+the+名词

2、as 的用法

(1)常用于下列结构:such…as; so…as;the same…as; as…as

注意:the same…as 表示同一类,不同一个

the same…that 表示同一个

(2)as与which的区别

a、位置不同

as可放在主句后,主句前或主句中间;which只能放在主句后。

b、as起连接作用,表达说话人的观点、看法,并指出主句内容的根据或出处,意为“正如,正像”。

Which相当于并列句,可以用and this来代替,意为“这一点,这件事’”。

注意:as常用于下列结构:as we know/ as is known to all, as we all can see, as has been said before/above,

as might be excepted, as is often the case, 一般不能用which代替as。

c、在从句中作主语时,which既可作系动词be的主语也可作实义动词的主语,而as只可作系动词be的主语。

二、只用that不用which的情况

1、.先行词为 all , much, everything, nothing , something ,anything, nothing, none, the one等不定代词时

2、先行词被only, any, few, little, no , all, just , very ,right等修饰时.

3、 当先行词是最高级或被形容词最高级修饰时。

4、 当先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰时。

5、当先行词是数词时.

6、 当先行词既指人又指物时。

7、如有两个定语从句,其中一个关系代词已用which,另一个关系代词则宜用 that。

8、主句是There be结构,修饰其主语的定语从句宜用that 作关系代词。

9、被修饰成分为表语,或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用that。

10、先行词为what,关系代词用that。

11、有时为了避免重复而使用that引导定语从句。

三、只用which不用that的情况

1、 当介词放在关系代词之前时。

2、 在非限制性定语从句中。

3、 当关系代词指整个主句的概念时。

四、只用who不用that的情况

1、当先行词是one, ones,anyone或those时。

2、there be 结构中。

3、当先行词是人,后面有较长修饰语时。

4、为了避免重复或引起歧义。

5、当先行词是I,you,he,they等时(常用于谚语中)。

6、先行词是指成员的集体名词。

7、who可以引导非限制性定语从句。

8、先行词是拟人化的名词。

9、先行词指特定的人时用who,不指特定的人用that。

五、关系副词引导的定语从句

1、when时间状语

注意:It/Ihis/That + be + the first/ second/ last time that… 只能用that,that可以省略,从句用相应的完成时。

2、where 地点状语

注意:当先行词为模糊的地点时,如point. Situation, case, position, stage, scene, spot, activity, family, job等名词时用where.

3、why 原因状语 先行词为reason。

六、介词与关系代词

1、介词如何确定

(1)依据定语从句中动词的习惯搭配来确定

(2)依据先行词的习惯搭配来确定

(3)根据意思来确定

(4)为了强调某一名词,不定式前加上关系词

2、关系代词作介词的宾语时,介词的位置

(1)whom和which可以和介词一起放在先行词和从句之间,也可以把介词放在从句中有关动词的后面。

(2)含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在动词的后面。

(3)关系代词that在从句中作介词宾语时,介词不能放在它的前面,只能放在从句中有关动词的后面。

(4)关系代词whose也可以在从句中与它所修饰的名词一起作介词宾语。

3、“名词/数词/代词+介词+关系代词”结构常见的形式有:名词/one/two/some/none/all/both/several/many/most/a few/a little/the+比较级/the+最高级…+of+which/whom。

七、定语从句中的主谓一致

1、关系代词作从句的主语时,从句中谓语动词的人称和数要与先行词保持一致,先行词是句子时,从句的谓语动词用单数形式。

2、“one of+复数名词”位于关系代词前作先行词时,关系代词在从句中作主语,从句的动词通常用复数,但当one前有the,the only,the very等修饰时,从句的谓语动词要用单数。

八、注意way和time后接定语从句的情况

1、当先行词是way,且意为“方式、方法”时,引导定语从句的关系词有下列三种形式:that/in which/不填。

注意:关系词在从句中必须作状语。如果关系词在从句中作主语或宾语,按正常的定语从句分析。

2、当先行词是time时,若time作“次数”讲,应用that引导定语从句,that可省略;若time作“一段时间”讲,应用关系副词when或介词at/during+which引导定语从句。

专题二: 状 语 从 句

一、时间状语从句

1、when的用法

(1)when既可引导一个持续性动作,也可引导一个短暂性动作,可用于表示主句和从句动作同时发生或从句动作先于主句动作,有时还可表示从句动作后于主句,意为“当。。。时候”。

(2)when在be about to do。。。when。。。,be doing。。。when。。。,had done。。。when。。。,be on one’s way。。。when。。。,be on the point of doing。。。when。。。等结构中,作“那时突然”讲。

(3)when “既然、鉴于;尽管,虽然(位于主句之后);如果”

2、while的用法

(1)表示“当。。。时候”,引导的动作必须是延续性的。

(2)用作并列连词,表示相对关系“然而”。

(3)引导让步状语从句,相当于although,意为“虽然”,位于主句前。

(4)引导条件状语从句,相当于as/so long as,意为“只要”。

3、as 的用法

(1)表示“当。。。时候”,强调同时发生,不指先后。

(2)说明两种正在发展或变化的情况,表示“随着”,表示时间的推移。

(3)表示“一边。。。一边。。。”。

(4)强调两个动作紧接着发生。

(5)表示“虽然,尽管”。

(6)其他含义“正如,正像”,“作为”,“由于,因为”。

4、before的用法

(1)一般意为“在。。。之前”“。。。才”,“。。。就”“还没有。。。”“免得”“不知不觉”“宁可,宁愿”,“否则,要不然”。

(2)It + will be/was + 时间段+before+一般现在时/一般过去时。在肯定句中,意为“多长时间之后才”;在否定句中,意为“用不了多长时间就”。

5、until和till

(1)与肯定句连用,必须是延续性动词。

(2)与否定句连用,必须是非延续性动词,表示“直到。。。才,在。。。之前不。。。”。

注意:not until可用于强调句和倒装句

强调句:It is/was not until…that…倒装句:not until 放句首时,主句要部分倒装。

6、since的用法

(1)since后是非延续性动词,时间起点从该动作发生算起,意为“做某事多久了”;since后是延续性动词,时间起点从该动作结束算起,意为“不做某事已有多长时间”。

(2)It is/has been +时间段+since+一般过去时

7、表示“一......就......”的句型

(1)as soon as, once,immediately,directly,instantly,the moment,the minute等引导的从句都表示从句的动作一发生,主句的动作随即发生,常译作“一。。。就。。。”,这类从句中,经常用一般现在时态代替将来时态。

(2)on doing sth.或“on one’s+名词”作时间状语。

8、有些名词和副词可以起连接词的作用,引导时间状语从句。

注意:时间状语从句中不用将来时态。若要表示将来时间,可用一般现在时态表示。但when引导名词性从句时,从句中要使用将来时。

二、地点状语从句

1、地点状语从句由where,wherever引导。

注意:where与where的区别:Where表特定的地点,而wherever表示非特定的地点。

Wherever=to/at any place where

2、地点状语从句与定语从句的区别

Where引导定语从句时,从句前应有一个表示地点的名词作先行词;而状语从句前则无先行词。

三、原因状语从句

引导词:because, since,as, now that, not that…, but that…, seeing that, considering that, in that

注意:for也可以表示原因,属并列连词,但不是说明直接原因,而是对某种情况加以推断,用于表示补充说明理由。

四、目的状语从句

引导词:so, so that, in order that, that, to the end that(以便,为了),in case,for fear that,lest(以免,以防),

目的状语从句中通常有情态动词can,could,may,might,should,would等。

注意:1、in case 还可表示“万一,假如”。

2、目的状语从句可以用so as to, in order to 等不定式代替,但主句和从句的主语必须一致。

五、结果状语从句

引导词:so...that(如此。。。以至于。。。),such...that(如此。。。以至于。。。),so that(结果是),with the result that(所以,结果是)

注意:(1)so...that与such...that的区别

So+形容词such+a/an+形容词+单数名词

So+形容词+a/an+单数名词such+形容词+复数名词

So+副词such+形容词+不可数名词

So many/few+复数名词

So much/little+不可数名词

(2)so that引导的目的状语从句与so that 引导的结果状语从句

目的状语从句一般使用情态动词,结果状语从句一般不使用情态动词;

结果状语从句常常用逗号与主句分开。

(3)so...that与so...as;such...that与such...as

So...that/such...that为结果状语从句;so...as/such...as为定语从句。

六、条件状语从句

引导词:if(如果),unless(除非),if only(只要,但愿),only if(只有),in case(万一),suppose/supposing(that)

(假设),provided/providing(that)(只要,假若),on condition that(要是,在。。。条件下),so/as long as(只要),(let's/let us)say(假设)

七、方式状语从句

引导词:as(像。。。一样,正如。。。),as if/as though(好像,宛如)

注意:1、固定句型A is to B what C is to D.意为“A对B而言正如C对D一样”。

2、as if, as though引导的从句若与事实相反,用虚拟语气;若与事实相符,不用虚拟语气。

八、让步状语从句

引导词:though/although/as(虽然,尽管),even if/though(即使,尽管),whether/no matter whether...or(not)

(不管。。。是否,不管是。。。还是)wh-ever/no matter wh-(无论。。。)

注意:(1)though,although,as的区别

A、Though,although的主句中可以用yet, still, nevertheless,但不可使用but。

B、though引导的从句可以倒装,也可以不倒装;as引导的从句必须倒装;although引导的从句不能倒装。

其结构为:形容词/分词/副词/动词原形/名词(无冠词)+as/though+主语+谓语……

(2)though可用作副词,放在句末,意为“不过,但是”。Although无此用法。

(3)某些短语也引导让步的从句或短语,意为“尽管”,如:in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, regardless of(the fact that)

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